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    Release 2016
    World Input-Output Tables and underlying data, covering 43 countries, and a model for the rest of the world for the period 2000-2014. Data for 56 sectors are classified according to the International Standard Industrial Classification revision 4 (ISIC Rev. 4). The tables adhere to the 2008 version of the SNA.
    Release 2013
    World Input-Output Tables and underlying data, covering 40 countries, and a model for the rest of the world for the period 1995-2011. Data for 35 sectors are classified according to the International Standard Industrial Classification revision 3 (ISIC Rev. 3). The tables adhere to the 1993 version of the SNA.


    When using this database, a reference should be made to the following paper:
    Timmer, M. P., Dietzenbacher, E., Los, B., Stehrer, R. and de Vries, G. J. (2015),
    "An Illustrated User Guide to the World Input–Output Database: the Case of Global Automotive Production",
    Review of International Economics., 23: 575–605


    For an overview of the sources and characteristics of the new 2016 release see:
    Timmer, M. P., Los, B., Stehrer, R. and de Vries, G. J. (2016),
    "An Anatomy of the Global Trade Slowdown based on the WIOD 2016 Release",
    GGDC research memorandum number 162, University of Groningen




    Research Impact

    Selected research output based on WIOD
    R. Adao, A. Costinot, and D. Donaldson (2017)
    "Nonparametric Counterfactual Predictions in Neoclassical Models of International Trade" American Economic Review, 107(3), 633-689.
    In this paper the authors develop a methodology to construct nonparametric counterfactual predictions, free of functional form restrictions on preferences and technology, in neoclassical models of international trade. The authors implement their methodology empirically using data from the World Input-Output Database.
    Pablo D. Fajgelbaum and Amit K. Khandelwal (2016)
    "Measuring the Unequal Gains from Trade" The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(3), 1113-1180.
    In this paper the authors develop a methodology to measure the unequal gains from trade across consumers within countries.
    M.P. Timmer, A.A. Erumban, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2014)
    "Slicing Up Global Value Chains" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 99-118.
    In this paper the authors “slice up the global value chain” using a decomposition technique that has recently become feasible due to the development of the World Input-Output Database. Value added is traced by all labor and capital that is directly and indirectly needed for the production of final manufacturing goods.
    A. Costinot and A. Rodriguez-Clare (2014)
    "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization" Handbook of International Economics, vol. 4, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 197-261
    This paper presents a methodology to assess the magnitude of the gains from trade liberalization if various issues are taken into account, e.g. the existence of multiple sectors and trade in intermediate inputs.
    Gianmarco Ottaviano, Joao Paulo Pessoa, Thomas Sampson, and John Van Reenen (2014)
    "The Costs and Benefits of Leaving the EU" London School of Economics/CEP mimeo, May 2014
    In this paper the authors focus on the effects of trade on welfare net of lower fiscal transfers to the EU, using a standard quantitative static general equilibrium trade model with multiple sectors, countries and intermediates.
    R.C. Johnson (2014)
    "Five Facts about Value-Added Exports and Implications for Macroeconomics and Trade Research" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 119-142.
    In this paper, after describing how value-added exports are computed, five key facts about differences between gross and value-added exports are summarized.
    B. Los, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2015)
    "How Global are Global Value Chains? A New Approach to Measure International Fragmentation" Journal of Regional Science, 55(1), 66-92.
    In this paper the authors derive the distribution of value added by all countries involved in the production chain of a particular final good. The main finding is that in almost all product chains, the share of value added outside the country-of-completion has increased since 1995. This is mainly added outside the region to which the country-of-completion belongs, suggesting a transition from regional production systems to “Factory World.”
    R. Koopman, Z. Wang and S.J. Wei (2014)
    "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports" American Economic Review, 104(2): 459-94.
    This study proposes an accounting framework that breaks up a country's gross exports into various value-added components by source and additional double counted terms. It bridges a gap between officail trade statistics and national accounts.
    Luis Antonio López, Maria Ángeles Cadarso, Jorge Enrique Zafrilla, and Guadalupe Arce (2014)
    "Assessing the implication on air pollution of an alternative control-based criterion" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406948111, E2630
    In this study a control-based criterion is applied to an atmospheric chemical transport model in order to estimate embodied pollution.
    Z. Wang, S.J. Wei and K. Zhu (2013)
    "Quantifying International Production Sharing at the Bilateral and Sector Levels" NBER Working Paper 19677
    This paper generalizes the gross exports accounting framework at the country level, recently proposed by Koopman, Wang, and Wei (2014), to one that decomposes gross trade flows (for both exports and imports) at the sector, bilateral, or bilateral sector level.
    M.P. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "Fragmentation, Incomes and Jobs: An Analysis of European Competitiveness" Economic Policy, 28, 613-661.
    In this paper, a new concept based on the value added that countries contribute to the production of final manufacturing goods, called ‘global value chain (GVC) income’ is proposed. Trends for European countries based on a recent multi-sector input–output model of the world economy are revealed.
    R.E. Baldwin and J. Lopez Gonzalez (2015)
    "Supply-Chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses" The World Economy, forthcoming
    This paper presents a portrait of the global pattern of supply-chain trade and how it has evolved since 1995. The evolution and consequences of China’s supply-chain trade receive special attention.
    E. Dietzenbacher, B. Los, R. Stehrer, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "The Construction of World Input-Output Tables in the WIOD Project" Economic Systems Research, 25, 71-98.
    The article describes the construction of the World Input–Output Tables that constitute the core of the World Input–Output Database.
    More published research articles based on WIOD can be found on this page.



    Policy Impact

    Policy papers based on WIOD data
    UNIDO (2016)
    "Industrial Development Report 2016, The Role of Technology and Innovation in Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development"
    J. Amador and F. di Mauro
    "The Age of Global Value Chains" CEPR Press, 2015
    F. di Mauro, H. Plamper and R. Stehrer
    "Global Value Chains: A Case for Europe to Cheer Up" Compnet Policy Brief 03/2013, European Central Bank, August 2013
    M. Saito, M. Ruta and J. Turunen
    "Trade Interconnectedness: The World with Global Value Chains" IMF Policy Paper, August 2013
    M. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G. de Vries
    "Rethinking Competitiveness: The Global Value Chain Revolution" VoxEU.org, June 2013
    A. Szirmai, M. Naudé and N. Haraguchi
    "Structural Change, Poverty Reduction and Industrial Policy in the BRICS" UNIDO/UNU-MERIT Report, Fall 2012
    P. Messerlin and S. Miroudot
    "EU Public Procurement Markets: How Open Are They?" Sciences Po/GEM Policy Brief, August 2012
    European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry
    "European Competitiveness Report 2012: Reaping the Benefits of Globalization"
    Bernard Hoekman, IMF
    "Adding Value" Finance & Development, December 2013, Vol. 50, No. 4
    Statistics Netherlands, (2013)
    "Towards a MRIO based national accounts consistent carbon footprint", Chapter 9 in Environmental accounts of the Netherlands 2012
    Michael Gasiorek, Javier Lopez Gonzalez et al.
    "China-EU global value chains: who creates value, how and where? - growing linkages and oppertunities" Final Report 2013 for DG Trade of the European Commission
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    WIOD is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International-license.