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    Production processes increasingly fragment across borders. This fundamentally alters the nature of international trade with deep consequences for the location of production. The World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is the first public database that contains new information on these trends and provides the opportunity to analyse the consequences of fragmentation, for example for shifting patterns in demand for skills in labour markets, or for local emissions of air pollutants. The World Input-Output Database (WIOD) provides time-series of world input-output tables for forty countries worldwide and a model for the rest-of-the-world, covering the period from 1995 to 2011. These tables have been constructed in a clear conceptual framework on the basis of officially published input-output tables in conjunction with national accounts and international trade statistics. In addition, the WIOD provides data on labour and capital inputs and pollution indicators at the industry level that can be used in conjunction enlarging the scope of possible applications.


    When using this database, a reference should be made to the following paper:
    Marcel P. Timmer (ed) (2012), "The World Input-Output Database (WIOD): Contents, Sources and Methods",
    WIOD Working Paper Number 10, downloadable at http://www.wiod.org/publications/papers/wiod10.pdf
    This paper provides an overview of the contents, sources and methods used in compiling the World Input-Output Database.


    WIOD main data tables

    Data type Description
    World Input-Output Tables World Input-Output Tables including 40 countries and a model for the rest of the world.
    National Input-Output Tables National Input-Output tables based on the world input-output tables.
    Socio Economic Accounts Data on employment (number of workers and educational attainment), capital stocks, gross output and value added at current and constant prices at the industry level.
    Environmental Accounts Data on energy use, CO2 emissions and emissions to air at the industry level.



    Research Impact

    Selected research output based on WIOD
    M.P. Timmer, A.A. Erumban, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2014)
    "Slicing Up Global Value Chains" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 99-118.
    In this paper the authors “slice up the global value chain” using a decomposition technique that has recently become feasible due to the development of the World Input-Output Database. Value added is traced by all labor and capital that is directly and indirectly needed for the production of final manufacturing goods.
    Gianmarco Ottaviano, Joao Paulo Pessoa, Thomas Sampson, and John Van Reenen (2014)
    "The Costs and Benefits of Leaving the EU" London School of Economics/CEP mimeo, May 2014
    In this paper the authors focus on the effects of trade on welfare net of lower fiscal transfers to the EU, using a standard quantitative static general equilibrium trade model with multiple sectors, countries and intermediates.
    R.C. Johnson (2014)
    "Five Facts about Value-Added Exports and Implications for Macroeconomics and Trade Research" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 119-142.
    In this paper, after describing how value-added exports are computed, five key facts about differences between gross and value-added exports are summarized.
    B. Los, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2014)
    "How Global are Global Value Chains? A New Approach to Measure International Fragmentation" Journal of Regional Science, (forthcoming)
    In this paper the authors derive the distribution of value added by all countries involved in the production chain of a particular final good. The main finding is that in almost all product chains, the share of value added outside the country-of-completion has increased since 1995. This is mainly added outside the region to which the country-of-completion belongs, suggesting a transition from regional production systems to “Factory World.”
    R. Koopman, Z. Wang and S.J. Wei (2014)
    "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports" American Economic Review, 104(2): 459-94.
    This study proposes an accounting framework that breaks up a country's gross exports into various value-added components by source and additional double counted terms. It bridges a gap between officail trade statistics and national accounts.
    Luis Antonio López, Maria Ángeles Cadarso, Jorge Enrique Zafrilla, and Guadalupe Arce (2014)
    "Assessing the implication on air pollution of an alternative control-based criterion" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406948111, E2630
    In this study a control-based criterion is applied to an atmospheric chemical transport model in order to estimate embodied pollution.
    Z. Wang, S.J. Wei and K. Zhu (2013)
    "Quantifying International Production Sharing at the Bilateral and Sector Levels" NBER Working Paper 19677
    This paper generalizes the gross exports accounting framework at the country level, recently proposed by Koopman, Wang, and Wei (2014), to one that decomposes gross trade flows (for both exports and imports) at the sector, bilateral, or bilateral sector level.
    A. Costinot and A. Rodriguez-Clare (2013)
    "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization" Handbook of International Economics, forthcoming
    The chapter presents a methodology to assess the magnitude of the gains from trade liberalization if various issues are taken into account, e.g. the existence of multiple sectors and trade in intermediate inputs.
    M.P. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "Fragmentation, Incomes and Jobs: An Analysis of European Competitiveness" Economic Policy, 28, 613-661.
    In this paper, a new concept based on the value added that countries contribute to the production of final manufacturing goods, called ‘global value chain (GVC) income’ is proposed. Trends for European countries based on a recent multi-sector input–output model of the world economy are revealed.
    R.E. Baldwin and J. Lopez Gonzalez (2013)
    "Supply-Chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses" NBER Working Paper 18957
    This paper presents a portrait of the global pattern of supply-chain trade and how it has evolved since 1995. The evolution and consequences of China’s supply-chain trade receive special attention.
    E. Dietzenbacher, B. Los, R. Stehrer, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "The Construction of World Input-Output Tables in the WIOD Project" Economic Systems Research, 25, 71-98.
    The article describes the construction of the World Input–Output Tables that constitute the core of the World Input–Output Database.
    More published research articles based on WIOD can be found on this page.



    Policy Impact

    Policy papers based on WIOD data
    F. di Mauro, H. Plamper and R. Stehrer
    "Global Value Chains: A Case for Europe to Cheer Up" Compnet Policy Brief 03/2013, European Central Bank, August 2013
    M. Saito, M. Ruta and J. Turunen
    "Trade Interconnectedness: The World with Global Value Chains" IMF Policy Paper, August 2013
    M. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G. de Vries
    "Rethinking Competitiveness: The Global Value Chain Revolution" VoxEU.org, June 2013
    A. Szirmai, M. Naudé and N. Haraguchi
    "Structural Change, Poverty Reduction and Industrial Policy in the BRICS" UNIDO/UNU-MERIT Report, Fall 2012
    P. Messerlin and S. Miroudot
    "EU Public Procurement Markets: How Open Are They?" Sciences Po/GEM Policy Brief, August 2012
    European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry
    "European Competitiveness Report 2012: Reaping the Benefits of Globalization"
    Bernard Hoekman, IMF
    "Adding Value" Finance & Development, December 2013, Vol. 50, No. 4
    Statistics Netherlands, (2013)
    "Towards a MRIO based national accounts consistent carbon footprint", Chapter 9 in Environmental accounts of the Netherlands 2012
    Michael Gasiorek, Javier Lopez Gonzalez et al.
    "China-EU global value chains: who creates value, how and where? - growing linkages and oppertunities" Final Report 2013 for DG Trade of the European Commission



    Recent WIOD Activities


    More WIOD activites can be found on the Activities page.


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    This project was funded by the European Commission, Research Directorate General as part of the 7th Framework Programme, Theme 8: Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities.

    Grant Agreement no: 225 281

    The views expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect the views of the E.C.