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    Production processes increasingly fragment across borders. This fundamentally alters the nature of international trade with deep consequences for the location of production. The World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is the first public database that contains new information on these trends and provides the opportunity to analyse the consequences of fragmentation, for example for shifting patterns in demand for skills in labour markets, or for local emissions of air pollutants. The World Input-Output Database (WIOD) provides time-series of world input-output tables for forty countries worldwide and a model for the rest-of-the-world, covering the period from 1995 to 2011. These tables have been constructed in a clear conceptual framework on the basis of officially published input-output tables in conjunction with national accounts and international trade statistics. In addition, the WIOD provides data on labour and capital inputs and pollution indicators at the industry level that can be used in conjunction enlarging the scope of possible applications.


    When using this database, a reference should be made to the following paper:
    Marcel P. Timmer (ed) (2012), "The World Input-Output Database (WIOD): Contents, Sources and Methods",
    WIOD Working Paper Number 10, downloadable at http://www.wiod.org/publications/papers/wiod10.pdf
    This paper provides an overview of the contents, sources and methods used in compiling the World Input-Output Database.


    WIOD main data tables

    Data type Description
    World Input-Output Tables World Input-Output Tables including 40 countries and a model for the rest of the world.
    National Input-Output Tables National Input-Output tables based on the world input-output tables.
    Socio Economic Accounts Data on employment (number of workers and educational attainment), capital stocks, gross output and value added at current and constant prices at the industry level.
    Environmental Accounts Data on energy use, CO2 emissions and emissions to air at the industry level.



    Research Impact

    Research based on WIOD data
    A. Costinot and A. Rodriguez-Clare (2013)
    "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization" Handbook of International Economics, forthcoming
    The chapter presents a methodology to assess the magnitude of the gains from trade liberalization if various issues are taken into account, e.g. the existence of multiple sectors and trade in intermediate inputs.
    M.P. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "Fragmentation, Incomes and Jobs: An Analysis of European Competitiveness" Economic Policy, 28, 613-661.
    In this paper, a new concept based on the value added that countries contribute to the production of final manufacturing goods, called ‘global value chain (GVC) income’ is proposed. Trends for European countries based on a recent multi-sector input–output model of the world economy are revealed.
    R.E. Baldwin and J. Lopez Gonzalez (2013)
    "Supply-Chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses" NBER Working Paper 18957
    This paper presents a portrait of the global pattern of supply-chain trade and how it has evolved since 1995. The evolution and consequences of China’s supply-chain trade receive special attention.
    N. Foster-McGregor and R. Stehrer (2013)
    "Value Added Content of Trade: A Comprehensive Approach" Economics Letters, 120, 354-357.
    This letter provides an approach to decompose the value added content of trade into foreign and domestic components when intermediates are traded, generalizing the commonly applied vertical specialization measures based on exports only.
    R. Inklaar and M.P. Timmer (2013)
    “The Relative Price of Services” Review of Income and Wealth, (forthcoming)
    The paper re-examines the Penn-effect based on a new set of PPPs for industry output. These are estimated using prices for final goods, exports, and imports. The resulting multilateral PPPs cover 35 industries in 42 countries for the year 2005.
    N. Foster-McGregor, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "Offshoring and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand" Review of World Economics, 149, 631-662.
    The paper examines the link between offshoring and the skill structure of labour demand for a sample of 40 countries over the period 1995-2009.
    T. Schwörer (2013)
    "Offshoring, Domestic Outsourcing and Productivity: Evidence for a Number of European Countries" Review of World Economics, 149, 131-149.
    The study provides stylized facts on offshoring in Europe between 1995 and 2008, taking into account the distinction between offshoring, domestic outsourcing, and supplier changes.
    E. Dietzenbacher, B. Los, R. Stehrer, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "The Construction of World Input-Output Tables in the WIOD Project" Economic Systems Research, 25, 71-98.
    The article describes the construction of the World Input–Output Tables that constitute the core of the World Input–Output Database.
    R. Koopman, Z. Wang and S.J. Wei (2013)
    "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports" American Economic Review, (forthcoming)
    This study proposes an accounting framework that breaks up a country's gross exports into various value-added components by source and additional double counted terms. It bridges a gap between officail trade statistics and national accounts.
    Sebastian Voigt, Enrica De Cian, Michael Schymura and Elena Verdolini (2014)
    "Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?" Energy Economics, (forthcoming)
    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database.
    I. Arto, J.M.Rueda-Cantuche, V.Andreoni, I.Mongelli, A.Genty (2013)
    "The game of trading jobs for emissions" Energy Policy



    Policy Impact

    Policy papers based on WIOD data
    F. di Mauro, H. Plamper and R. Stehrer
    "Global Value Chains: A Case for Europe to Cheer Up" Compnet Policy Brief 03/2013, European Central Bank, August 2013
    M. Saito, M. Ruta and J. Turunen
    "Trade Interconnectedness: The World with Global Value Chains" IMF Policy Paper, August 2013
    M. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G. de Vries
    "Rethinking Competitiveness: The Global Value Chain Revolution" VoxEU.org, June 2013
    A. Szirmai, M. Naudé and N. Haraguchi
    "Structural Change, Poverty Reduction and Industrial Policy in the BRICS" UNIDO/UNU-MERIT Report, Fall 2012
    P. Messerlin and S. Miroudot
    "EU Public Procurement Markets: How Open Are They?" Sciences Po/GEM Policy Brief, August 2012
    European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry
    "European Competitiveness Report 2012: Reaping the Benefits of Globalization"
    Bernard Hoekman, IMF
    "Adding Value" Finance & Development, December 2013, Vol. 50, No. 4
    Statistics Netherlands, (2013)
    "Towards a MRIO based national accounts consistent carbon footprint", Chapter 9 in Environmental accounts of the Netherlands 2012
    Michael Gasiorek, Javier Lopez Gonzalez et al.
    "China-EU global value chains: who creates value, how and where? - growing linkages and oppertunities" Final Report 2013 for DG Trade of the European Commission



    Recent WIOD Activities


    More WIOD activites can be found on the Activities page.


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    This project was funded by the European Commission, Research Directorate General as part of the 7th Framework Programme, Theme 8: Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities.

    Grant Agreement no: 225 281

    The views expressed in this website do not necessarily reflect the views of the E.C.