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    R. Adao, A. Costinot, and D. Donaldson (2017)
    "Nonparametric Counterfactual Predictions in Neoclassical Models of International Trade" American Economic Review, 107(3), 633-689.
    In this paper the authors develop a methodology to construct nonparametric counterfactual predictions, free of functional form restrictions on preferences and technology, in neoclassical models of international trade. The authors implement their methodology empirically using data from the World Input-Output Database.
    O. Kaltenegger, A. Löschel, M. Baikowski, J. Lingens (2017)
    "Energy costs in Germany and Europe: An assessment based on a (total real unit) energy cost accounting framework" Energy Policy, 104, 419-430.
    The authors develop an input-output based (real unit) energy cost accounting framework and study the trends of real unit energy costs, defined as energy costs as a fraction of value added, in Germany and the EU between 1995 and 2011.
    M. Hübler and F. Pothen (2017)
    "Trade-induced Productivity Gains Reduce Incentives to Impose Strategic Tariffs" Economic Modelling, 61, 420-431.
    Strategic tariffs, which raise an economy's welfare by restricting trade and improving the terms of trade, can create an obstacle to free trade. The authors evaluate how far trade-induced productivity gains (technology spillovers) reduce or remove this obstacle, because more intensive trade enhances these potential gains.
    M. Hübler (2016)
    "A new trade network theory: What economists can learn from engineers" Economic Modelling, 55, 115–126.
    This paper introduces a new trade model type combining the gravity model used by economists and network analysis methods used by electrical engineers. Calibrating the model to the World Input-Output Database (WIOD), the optimal trans-Pacific trade barrier between North America and Asia is estimated to be one third of the current trade barrier.
    E. Ünal (2016)
    "A comparative analysis of export growth in Turkey and China through macroeconomic and institutional factors" Evolutionary and Institutional Economics Review, 13(1), 57–91.
    A comparative analysis of export growth in Turkey and China through macroeconomic and institutional factors.
    F. Portella-Carbó (2016)
    "Effects of International Trade on Domestic Employment: an Application of a Global Multiregional Input–Output Supermultiplier model (1995–2011)" Economic Systems Research, 28(1), 95–117.
    The effects on domestic employment of international trade and the globalisation of supply chains are as politically controversial as they are empirically inconclusive. To estimate them we extend the global multiregional input–output framework by endogenising demand for both domestic and imported intermediates, private business investment and household non-durable consumption – or equivalently, we generalise the supermultiplier formula.
    Steven Brakman, and Charles Van Marrewijk (2016)
    "A closer look at revealed comparative advantage: Gross-versus value-added trade flows" Papers in Regional Science, (forthcoming)
    In this paper the authors determine the distributions of revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in terms of both gross exports and value-added for 40 countries.
    Arne J. Nagengast and Robert Stehrer (2016)
    "The Great Collapse in Value Added Trade" Review of International Economics, (forthcoming)
    This paper studies the great collapse in value added trade using a structural decomposition analysis.
    Arne J. Nagengast and Robert Stehrer (2016)
    "Accounting for the Differences between Gross and Value Added Trade Balances" The World Economy, (forthcoming)
    This study proposes a decomposition of bilateral gross trade balances that accounts for the differences between gross and value added concepts.
    B. Los, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2015)
    "How important are exports for job growth in China? A demand side analysis" Journal of Comparative Economics, 43(1), 19-32.
    In this paper the impact of foreign demand on Chinese employment creation is analyzed, by extending the global input–output methodology introduced by Johnson and Noguera (2012).
    F. Pothen and M. Schymura (2015)
    "Bigger Cakes with Fewer Ingredients? A Comparison of Material Use of the World Economy" Ecological Economics, 109, 109-121
    Using an index decomposition analysis based on the logarithmic mean Divisia index, this paper investigates the drivers of material use, both on a global and a country scale.
    S. Mair, A. Druckman, T. Jackson (2015)
    "Global inequities and emissions in Western European textiles and clothing consumption" Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526
    The study analyses how increased fragmentation of production and changes in consumption have affected global carbon emissions and employment in the Western European Textiles and Clothing supply chain.
    B. Los, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2015)
    "How Global are Global Value Chains? A New Approach to Measure International Fragmentation" Journal of Regional Science, 55(1), 66-92.
    In this paper the authors derive the distribution of value added by all countries involved in the production chain of a particular final good. The main finding is that in almost all product chains, the share of value added outside the country-of-completion has increased since 1995. This is mainly added outside the region to which the country-of-completion belongs, suggesting a transition from regional production systems to “Factory World.”
    R.E. Baldwin and J. Lopez Gonzalez (2015)
    "Supply-Chain Trade: A Portrait of Global Patterns and Several Testable Hypotheses" The World Economy, forthcoming
    This paper presents a portrait of the global pattern of supply-chain trade and how it has evolved since 1995. The evolution and consequences of China’s supply-chain trade receive special attention.
    M.P. Timmer, A.A. Erumban, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2014)
    "Slicing Up Global Value Chains" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 99-118.
    In this paper the authors “slice up the global value chain” using a decomposition technique that has recently become feasible due to the development of the World Input-Output Database. Value added is traced by all labor and capital that is directly and indirectly needed for the production of final manufacturing goods.
    M. Hübler and A. Glas (2014)
    "The Energy-Bias of North-South Technology Spillovers - A Global, Bilateral, Bisectoral Trade Analysis" Environmental and Resource Economics, 58(1), 59-89
    This paper examines the variations in the South–North ratios (emerging vs. industrialized countries) of energy and labor intensities driven by imports.
    A. Costinot and A. Rodriguez-Clare (2014)
    "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization" Handbook of International Economics, vol. 4, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 197-261
    This paper presents a methodology to assess the magnitude of the gains from trade liberalization if various issues are taken into account, e.g. the existence of multiple sectors and trade in intermediate inputs.
    Gianmarco Ottaviano, Joao Paulo Pessoa, Thomas Sampson, and John Van Reenen (2014)
    "The Costs and Benefits of Leaving the EU" London School of Economics/CEP mimeo, May 2014
    In this paper the authors focus on the effects of trade on welfare net of lower fiscal transfers to the EU, using a standard quantitative static general equilibrium trade model with multiple sectors, countries and intermediates.
    R.C. Johnson (2014)
    "Five Facts about Value-Added Exports and Implications for Macroeconomics and Trade Research" Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(2), 119-142.
    In this paper, after describing how value-added exports are computed, five key facts about differences between gross and value-added exports are summarized.
    R. Koopman, Z. Wang and S.J. Wei (2014)
    "Tracing Value-Added and Double Counting in Gross Exports" American Economic Review, 104(2): 459-94.
    This study proposes an accounting framework that breaks up a country's gross exports into various value-added components by source and additional double counted terms. It bridges a gap between officail trade statistics and national accounts.
    Luis Antonio López, Maria Ángeles Cadarso, Jorge Enrique Zafrilla, and Guadalupe Arce (2014)
    "Assessing the implication on air pollution of an alternative control-based criterion" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406948111, E2630
    In this study a control-based criterion is applied to an atmospheric chemical transport model in order to estimate embodied pollution.
    Y. Xu and E. Dietzenbacher (2014)
    "A structural decomposition analysis of the emissions embodied in trade" Ecological Economics, 101, 10-20.
    The aim of this study is to quantify the driving forces behind the growth of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in trade (EET). The World Input–output Database is used to estimate EET in 40 countries during 1995–2007 after which a structural decomposition analysis is applied.
    I. Arto and E. Dietzenbacher (2014)
    "Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions" Environmental Science&Technology, (forthcoming)
    This paper looks at whether and how trade changes have affected global emissions.
    S. Voigt, E. De Cian, M. Schymura and E. Verdolini (2014)
    "Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?" Energy Economics, 41, 47-62.
    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database.
    J.E. Zafrilla, M.A. Cadarso, F. Monsalve and C. de la Rúa (2014)
    "How Carbon-Friendly Is Nuclear Energy? A Hybrid MRIO-LCA Model of a Spanish Facility" Environmental Science & Technology, 48(24), 14103-14111. DOI: 10.1021/es503352s
    This paper presents a two-level analysis on how to reduce Spain's greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050.
    I. Arto, J.M.Rueda-Cantuche, V.Andreoni, I.Mongelli, A.Genty (2014)
    "The game of trading jobs for emissions" Energy Policy, 66, 517-525
    This paper proposes the idea of including trade issues in international climate negotiations, taking into account not only the environmental burden generated by developed countries when displacing emissions to developing countries through their imports, but also the economic benefits of developing countries producing the goods exported to developed countries.
    Z. Wang, S.J. Wei and K. Zhu (2013)
    "Quantifying International Production Sharing at the Bilateral and Sector Levels" NBER Working Paper 19677
    This paper generalizes the gross exports accounting framework at the country level, recently proposed by Koopman, Wang, and Wei (2014), to one that decomposes gross trade flows (for both exports and imports) at the sector, bilateral, or bilateral sector level.
    M.P. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "Fragmentation, Incomes and Jobs: An Analysis of European Competitiveness" Economic Policy, 28, 613-661.
    In this paper, a new concept based on the value added that countries contribute to the production of final manufacturing goods, called ‘global value chain (GVC) income’ is proposed. Trends for European countries based on a recent multi-sector input–output model of the world economy are revealed.
    N. Foster-McGregor and R. Stehrer (2013)
    "Value Added Content of Trade: A Comprehensive Approach" Economics Letters, 120, 354-357.
    This letter provides an approach to decompose the value added content of trade into foreign and domestic components when intermediates are traded, generalizing the commonly applied vertical specialization measures based on exports only.
    R. Inklaar and M.P. Timmer (2013)
    “The Relative Price of Services” Review of Income and Wealth, (forthcoming)
    The paper re-examines the Penn-effect based on a new set of PPPs for industry output. These are estimated using prices for final goods, exports, and imports. The resulting multilateral PPPs cover 35 industries in 42 countries for the year 2005.
    N. Foster-McGregor, R. Stehrer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "Offshoring and the Skill Structure of Labour Demand" Review of World Economics, 149, 631-662.
    The paper examines the link between offshoring and the skill structure of labour demand for a sample of 40 countries over the period 1995-2009.
    T. Schwörer (2013)
    "Offshoring, Domestic Outsourcing and Productivity: Evidence for a Number of European Countries" Review of World Economics, 149, 131-149.
    The study provides stylized facts on offshoring in Europe between 1995 and 2008, taking into account the distinction between offshoring, domestic outsourcing, and supplier changes.
    E. Dietzenbacher, B. Los, R. Stehrer, M.P. Timmer and G.J. de Vries (2013)
    "The Construction of World Input-Output Tables in the WIOD Project" Economic Systems Research, 25, 71-98.
    The article describes the construction of the World Input–Output Tables that constitute the core of the World Input–Output Database.

    Policy Impact

    Policy papers based on WIOD data
    J. Amador and F. di Mauro
    "The Age of Global Value Chains" CEPR Press, 2015
    F. di Mauro, H. Plamper and R. Stehrer
    "Global Value Chains: A Case for Europe to Cheer Up" Compnet Policy Brief 03/2013, European Central Bank, August 2013
    M. Saito, M. Ruta and J. Turunen
    "Trade Interconnectedness: The World with Global Value Chains" IMF Policy Paper, August 2013
    M. Timmer, B. Los, R. Stehrer and G. de Vries
    "Rethinking Competitiveness: The Global Value Chain Revolution" VoxEU.org, June 2013
    A. Szirmai, M. Naudé and N. Haraguchi
    "Structural Change, Poverty Reduction and Industrial Policy in the BRICS" UNIDO/UNU-MERIT Report, Fall 2012
    P. Messerlin and S. Miroudot
    "EU Public Procurement Markets: How Open Are They?" Sciences Po/GEM Policy Brief, August 2012
    European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry
    "European Competitiveness Report 2012: Reaping the Benefits of Globalization"
    Bernard Hoekman, IMF
    "Adding Value" Finance & Development, December 2013, Vol. 50, No. 4
    Statistics Netherlands, (2013)
    "Towards a MRIO based national accounts consistent carbon footprint", Chapter 9 in Environmental accounts of the Netherlands 2012
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